Due to the space limitations of a text message, please note that it is particularly important to read carefully, pay close attention to the context of the question, and use the answers as a springboard for further study.
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A: According to Rabban Gamliel (quoted by the Gemara RH 34B) Chazaras Hashatz was originally set up so that people who were unable to read the prayers themselves (due to illiteracy) would be able to listen to the chazzan in order to fulfill their individual obligations of reciting shemoneh esrei. The Rambam explains in a teshuva that even if everyone in a congregation happens to know how to daven on their own we still have the repetition. That is because it was established as a standard shul procedure that would be done routinely in case someone needed it, just as many Ashkenazi shuls recite Kiddush every Friday night even though there are no guests that will be eating in the synagogue itself.
Q: Why were there Karbanot given on Shabbos?
A: Only karbanot that the Torah specifically requires be brought every single day or on Shabbos were actually offered on Shabbos but no other karbanot were. Apparently, they are more important than the Shabbos prohibitions.
Q: There is now an etrog (possibly from Israel) and a very moldy lulav sitting in my living room. Am I allowed to throw out the lulav? And what can/should I do with the etrog?
A: Lulav: Dispose of respectfully in trash. Do the same with the esrog after it “rots” i.e. becomes inedible.
A: Either way
Q: Is the taboo regarding a mixture of meat and fish specific to eating it or cooking it? I.e. if one cooked meatballs that contained Worcestershire sauce (with anchovies in the ingredients) in a pyrex pan, what should be done with the pan?
A: All varieties of rice are assumed to be kosher even without supervision.
Q: What’s the kashrus situation with buying drinks in Starbucks and Dutch Bros.?
A: There are two types of stores regarding this question. The first type is a coffee shop that does not cook any non-kosher food, e.g. a Starbucks kiosk in a grocery store. In this type of shop the only concern is whether or not the ingredients that go into each drink are kosher which is relatively easy to clarify by asking or sometimes by checking online (kosherstarbucks.com). The second type is a shop that also cooks non-kosher food – like a regular Starbucks brick and mortar shop and the above concern applies to these stores as well. In these stores the kitchen equipment used for the non-kosher food can often be washed in hot water together with the equipment used to prepare the hot drinks. Some authorities maintain that since there is a possibility of cross-contamination that could render all of the equipment non-kosher, it is advisable not to consume any hot drinks from these stores even when all of the ingredients are kosher. Common custom in many communities (particularly those with no comparable kosher coffee shop options) is to follow other authorities that maintain that the concern for cross-contamination is sufficiently remote to render it irrelevant and to permit even hot drinks (as long as the ingredients are kosher).